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Water supply and sanitation in Pakistan is characterized by some achievements and many challenges. Despite high population growth the country has increased the share of the population with access to an improved water source from 86% in 1990 to 90% in 2006, and the share with access to improved sanitation from 33% to 58% during the same period according to the Joint Monitoring Program for Water Supply and Sanitation.[9] [10] There has also been considerable innovation at the grass-root level, in particular concerning sanitation. The Orangi Pilot Project in Karachi [11] and community-led total sanitation in rural areas are two examples of such innovation.

However, the sector still faces major challenges. The quality of the services is poor, as evidenced by intermittent water supply in urban areas and limited wastewater treatment. Poor drinking water quality and sanitation lead to major outbreaks of waterborne diseases.[12] In addition, many service providers do not even cover the costs of operation and maintenance due to low tariffs and poor efficiency.[5] Consequently, the service providers strongly depend on government subsidies and external funding.[13]

These problems are partly a result of a policy focus on irrigation, which prevailed in the Pakistani water policy for decades. This has changed to some extent since the Medium Term Development Framework 2005-2010 was passed. The framework provides for about US$404 million per year for water supply and sanitation and is accompanied by several policy documents with the objective to notably improve water and sanitation coverage and quality.[7][14] However, the level of annual investment investment (US$4/capita) still remains much below what would be necessary to achieve a significant increase in access and service quality.

Access

In Pakistan, according to the Joint Monitoring Program of the World Health Organization and UNICEF, access in Pakistan to an improved water source increased from 83% in 1990 to 91% in 2004. In the same time, improved sanitation coverage increased from 37% to 59% (see table 1).[1]

Table 1: Access to Water and Sanitation in Pakistan (2004)[1]
Urban
(34% of the population)
Rural
(66% of the population)
Total
Water Broad definition 96% 89% 91%
House connections 49% 15% 27%
Sanitation Broad definition 92% 41% 59%
Sewerage 40% 6% 18%

Given these figures, the MDGs concerning water and sanitation, which give the target of halving the share of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation by 2015, compared to 1990 are very likely to be reached. The United Nations Development Programme assumes that concerning urban and rural water supply as well as urban sanitation, the targets will be achieved prematurely, whereas rural sanitation progress is classified to be “on track”.[15] However, the Government of Pakistan relies on other figures. According to the federal government, in 2005 66% of the total population had access to an improved water source, defined as pipe and hand pump water.[16]

According to the National Drinking Water Policy (NDWP), Pakistan’s goal is to provide universal access to drinking water in an equitable, efficient and sustainable manner by 2025.[17] At the same time, the National Sanitation Policy aims to meet the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) concerning sanitation by 2015 and to serve the total population with improved sanitation by 2025.[18]

Service quality

Water supply service quality is often inappropriate in Pakistan. One document criticizes the MDG’s methodology of only taking into account coverage figures, without attention to adequate service quality, which may not be given in all cases.[10]

Continuity of supply

Intermittent water supply is common in urban areas. For Pakistani cities, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) indicates continuity rates of 1 to 10 hours (Karachi), 11 to 15 hours (Rawalpindi) and 16 to 23 hours (Lahore) per day.[4][19] During a 2005 workshop, similar figures were reported except for Rawalpindi for which a shorter duration of only 8 hours was reported (see Table 3)[20]. Consequently, consumers use on-site storage mechanisms like ground or roof tanks, or they purchase water from lorry tankers or use shallow wells and rivers. Many privately operated lorry tankers are licensed by water utilities and benefit from the discontinuous water supply.[12]

Table 2: Hours of water supply per day in major Pakistani cities[20]
Karachi Lahore Faisalabad Rawalpindi Multan Peshawar
4 17 8 8 8 9

Drinking water quality

Generally, water pressure is low in Pakistani supply systems. Together with leaky pipes, this has led to infiltration of contaminated water. As a result of sewage and industrial waste, which leaked into drinking water through damaged pipes, major outbreaks of waterborne diseaseepidemics swept the cities of FaisalabadKarachiLahore and Peshawar in 2006.[12] Estimates indicate that each year, more than three million Pakistanis become infected with waterborne diseases.[21] In several areas, increased arsenicnitrate and fluoride contamination was detected in drinking water.[22]

Wastewater treatment

The Pakistani Ministry of Water and Power reported in 2002 that only 1% of the domestic and industrial wastewater receives treatment.[23]According to the Pakistan Water Situational Analysis, there are three wastewater treatment plants in Islamabad, of which only one is functional. Karachi has two trickling filters, where effluents generally receive screening and sedimentation. Lahore has some screening and grit removal systems, but they are hardly functional. In Faisalabad, there is a wastewater treatment plant, in which wastewater receivesprimary treatment. In rural areas, wastewater treatment is nonexistent, leading to pollution of surface and groundwater.[24]

History and recent developments

History

After Pakistan’s independence in 1947, national water policies were defined in the government’s five-year plans, which were replaced by a ten-year plan in 2001. Given the economic impact of the agricultural sector in the country, the plans were mainly focused on irrigation instead of rural and urban water supply. In the particular cases, the first and second five-year plans emphasized the increasing application of water for increasing productivity and control of waterlogging and salinity, which together with water conservation continued to be an element of the third and fourth five-year plans. The fifth, sixth and seventh plans dealt with water management, the reduction of water losses and increased user participation in the improvement of watercourses.[25] The eighth and last plan provided for the formation of farmer organizations and decentralization of water management through Area Water Boards.[26] However, the plans have not always been implemented accordingly.[27]

The existing water supply and sanitation facilities are mostly the product of a top-down approach, usually constructed by the Public Health Engineering Departments (PHEDs) and in many cases expensive and difficult to maintain for local communities. Hygiene education and user participation were neglected until 1992, when the federal government launched the Social Action Plan, which suggested various policy reforms concerning water supply and sanitation. This included user participation, hygiene promotion and low-cost technologies.[28]

Recent developments

Until the 21st century, Pakistani water sector policies were mainly focused on water resources and irrigation.[29] This has changed with the National Drinking Water Policy (NDWP), the National Sanitation Policy (NSP) and the Clean Drinking Water for All Programme, which were prepared by the Ministry of Environment as integral parts of the Medium Term Development Framework (MTDF) 2005-2010.[30] The MTDF provides about US$2 billion (120 billion rupee) for water and sanitation schemes.[7][6] In addition, a Safe Drinking Water Act will be adopted under the MTDF to ensure compliance with the Pakistan Drinking Water Quality Standards.[31] A major shift of sector responsibility took place under the 2001 Local Government Ordinance.[32]

Local Government Ordinance of 2001

Until the 2001 Local Government Ordinance (LGO), the PHED has been responsible for the development and maintenance of water and sanitation services in rural areas, whereas in urban areas services were provided by Development Authorities and Water and Sanitation Authorities (WASAs). Under the LGO, three tiers of local governments were created, namely

The responsibility for water supply and sanitation was nominally devolved to Tehsil Municipal Administrations (TMAs), the second-lowest tier of local government in Pakistan, comparable to counties or sub-districts. The PHED was supposed to be merged into the Provincial Local Government Department. The staff was supposed to be devolved at the TMA level. However, the decentralization has not been implemented in all areas.[30][34] In 2008, it was reported that PHEDs were still active in water supply development, operation and maintenance, particularly in areas where the schemes spread across more than one tehsil. In those cases, the PHEDs usually develop supply-driven schemes with little or no participation of TMAs. In addition, the devolution took place differently from one province top another. According to a 2003 document, the PHED remains fully functional in the Balochistan Province and in the Punjab Province, and local government powers were recentralized.[32]

National Sanitation Policy of 2006

The National Sanitation Policy (NSP), approved by the federal government in 2006,[35], promotes the grassroots concept of community-led total sanitation (CLTS) in communities with less than 1,000 inhabitants. In larger communities, the NSP promotes a “component sharing model”, under which sewage and wastewater treatment facilities are provided by the communities in the case that local government developed disposal is not available.[36] The objective is the safe disposal of excreta through the use of latrines, the creation of an “open defecation free environment”, safe disposal of liquid and solid waste and the promotion of health and hygiene practices. The federal government provides incentives for the implementation of the NSP in the form of rewards for open defecation-free tehsils/towns, 100% sanitation coverage tehsils/towns, the cleanest tehsils/towns and the cleanest industrial estates or clusters.[36] Participating stakeholders include government institutions, the private sector, non-governmental organizations (NGOs)Community-Based Organizations (CBOs), communities, individual households and the electronic and print media.

[edit]National Drinking Water Policy (NDWP) of 2009

In September 2009 the government approved the National Drinking Water Policy that aims at providing safe drinking water to the entire Pakistani population by 2025, including the poor and vulnerable at an affordable cost.[37] A main objective is a clearer segregation between the functions of service provision and regulation. The right to water for drinking precedes all other uses, like industrial or agricultural water use. Women are recognized as main actors of domestic water supply, and their active participation in the sector is sought. In accordance with the LGO, the document highlights the responsibility of local governments to provide drinking water. The policy is expected to be reviewed and updated every five years to examine its implementation and efficacy and to adapt it to the changing situation in the country.[38]

Clean Drinking Water for All Programme

The Clean Drinking Water for All Programme/Clean Drinking Water Initiative aim to improve the quality of drinking water by building water treatment facilities.

The US$8.2 million Clean Drinking Water Initiative, approved in 2004, provides for the construction of 445 water purification plants of 2,000 gallons per hour in all Pakistani tehsils The Ministry of Environment is to “provide the technical support to the provinces by installing various plants at selected places on turn key basis and then handing it over to local municipal administration.” [39] The plants would be installed in “public places”, which together with the limited capacity of the plants suggests that the purified water is not to be used for network supply, but rather for distribution as bottled water. The much larger US$168 million Clean Drinking Water for All Programmeaims at delivering one purification plant to each Pakistani Union Council. The plants are expected to be maintained through contracting out for three subsequent years. It is estimated that one purification plant will serve 2-20% of each Union Council’s population, which on average have 20,000 inhabitants. Under the programme, the establishment of 6,035 purification plants with capacities of 500, 1,000 and 2,000 gallons per hour is planned.[7][40]

In January 2009 USAID signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the “Ministry of Special Initiatives” to support the programme with US$17.9 million, anticipating that over 31 million Pakistanis in 40 districts will benefit from it. [41]

The German companies Siemens and KSB won contracts under the programme to install purification plants in Punjab.[42]

The Programme generated criticism when it was learned that inadequate planning may threaten to halt the entire program. Furthermore, there have been allegations of conflict of interest by certain persons who, although occupying highest government offices, had formed private companies to win the installation contract from the Government. Taking cognizance of this, the Government of the Punjab has expressed its serious reservations against the project and has even suggested that it be halted until proper planning and siting of plants can take place.

Responsibility for water supply and sanitation

Map of Pakistan

Policy and regulation

Drinking water and sanitation policy is the constitutional responsibility of provincial governments. However, the federal government is involved in policy development and guidelines setting, mostly through the Ministry of Environment. A National Drinking Water and Sanitation Committee was established in 2009 to implement both the National Sanitation Policy and the National Drinking Water Policy.[38] There is no independent regulatory agency in the sector.[43]

The Ministry of Health is expected to set water quality standards and monitor drinking water quality in the country. Poor coordination between the ministry and other authorities have been reported. The Health Services Academy under the Ministry of Health published Quality Drinking Water Standards for Pakistan in May 2007.[44] It should be noted that these standards were not officially implemented and monitored in 2008.

Service provision

Since the 2001 Local Government Ordinance, water supply and sanitation services are expected to be delivered by the newly created Tehsil Municipal Administrations (TMAs) (seeabove). At the same time, responsibilities for coordination and joint implementation across TMAs were devolved to District Governments, including City District Governments in the largest cities and Common Districts. However, as indicated above constant challenges in the transition period were reported and provincial Public Health and Engineering Departments (PHEDs) continue to provide water services, especially in rural areas.[28]

In urban areas, local governments have formed public sector water boards or, in the case of the City District Governments, a total of seven Water and Sanitation Agencies (WASAs).[45] In Karachi, the Karachi Water and Sewerage Board (KWSB) under the local government provides the services.[46]

NGOs are particularly active in sanitation, and have reached some notable achievements.[47] Under the National Drinking Water and Sanitation Policies, the participation of NGOs and the private sector is encouraged.[38][48]

Innovative approaches

A number of innovative sanitation approaches have been piloted in Pakistan. These include participatory sanitation infrastructure projects – such as the Orangi Pilot Project in urban slums in the 1980s and the Lodhran Pilot Project in rural areas since 1999 – as well as Community-led total sanitation (CLTS) projects implemented since 2003.

Orangi Pilot Project

Main article: Orangi Pilot Project

Orangi is a large informal low-income settlement located in Karachi and place of a user participation success story. The Orangi Pilot Project (OPP) was initiated by an NGO under Dr. Akhtar Hameed Khan in 1980 in order to improve the poor sanitation conditions through a low-cost sanitation program with active user participation. A main feature of the project is the component sharing model. The first component is responsibility of the communities, which receive technical assistance. The community develops and constructs primary household sanitary latrines, underground sewers and neighborhood collector sewers. Those are connected to main sewers and treatment plants, which form the second component and are constructed with public funds. The OPP was very successful and about 100,000 households have developed their own sanitation systems in Orangi. The project was replicated by NGOs and CBOs in other Pakistani cities.[11][49] The component sharing model is encouraged under the 2006 National Sanitation Policy.[50]

Lodhran Pilot Project

Inspired by the OPP, a pilot project emerged in Lodhran District in 1999. The project follows a low cost, community owned rural sanitation model based on a participatory approach. In 2004, the Lodhran Pilot Project (LPP) received a US$1.1 million grant by the World Bank-administered Japan Social Development Fund (JSDF) to expand the model in 100 villages in Southern Punjab. Under the grant, TMAs receive technical assistance concerning public private partnerships, training and capacity building and communication.[51][52]

Community-led total sanitation (CLTS)

In Pakistan, the concept of Community-led total sanitation (CLTS) was first introduced as a pilot project in Mardan District in the North West Frontier Province in 2003 by the local NGO IRSP (Integrated Regional Support Program) together with UNICEF.[53] A main objective of the concept is to create open defecation free villages through behavioral change in the whole community, rather than to construct sanitation facilities for individual households. Since then, CLTS has spread rapidly in the whole country and became a main feature of the National Sanitation Policy, which provides financial rewards for defined outcomes. Development agencies began to link their funding and incentives to theopen defecation free status. For example, the Khushal Pakistan Fund has allocated about US$200 million (12 billion Pakistani rupees[54]) to community infrastructure projects in open defecation free communities.

In addition, several organizations like Plan Pakistan and WaterAid have integrated CLTS in their strategies and projects. CLTS projects were active in all four Pakistani regions in 2007. NGOs were implementing CLTS in about 20 districts in 2008. At the same time, more than 130 defecation free villages already existed in Pakistan.[55]

Through CLTS more than 1,500 villages achieved “open defecation free status” by 2009. This figure is expected to reach 15,000 villages by June 2011, covering a third of the rural population of Pakistan. An assessment of CLTS pilots in nine villages showed that open defecation stopped, but communities used unimproved and unhygienic latrines making any substantial effort to upgrade or replace damaged latrines.[56]

Efficiency

There is little evidence concerning efficiency in the Pakistani water supply and sanitation sector. However, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) prepared a document, which includes the respective data for the cities of Rawalpindi, Karachi and Lahore.[4] Furthermore, data from six major cities were reported during a 2005 workshop in Karachi.[20]

Non-revenue water

The share of non-revenue water (NRW), water which is produced but not billed due to several reasons like leakage and illegal connections is estimated at 35% in urban areas.[57] The ADB reported an amount of 30% NRW in Rawalpindi and Karachi, and 42% in Lahore.[19] As indicated in table 3, officials from major Pakistani cities reported a higher share of NRW during a 2005 workshop, ranging from 40% to 50%.[20] There is no agreement on appropriate levels of NRW among professionals. However, Tynan and Kingdom propose a best practicetarget of 23% in developing countries.[58]

Labor productivity

There are no updated and precise figures for labor productivity, measured in employees per 1,000 connections. However, the Ministry of Power and Environment indicated a poor performance in the country’s major cities.[59] The ADB found an average of 5.6 employees per 1,000 connections in Karachi. In Lahore and Rawalpindi, labor productivity is indicated lower at 9.5 and 12.7 employees per 1,000 connections, respectively.[19] At the 2005 workshop, between 6 and 27 employees per 1,000 connections in major cities were reported (see table 3).[60]Tynan and Kingdom propose a best practice target of 5 employees per 1,000 connections in developing countries. However it should be mentioned that equally to NRW, this target is a suggestion of the authors, which is not established as official best practice target among professionals.[58]

Table 3: Indicators of efficiency in major Pakistani cities[20]
Karachi Lahore Faisalabad Rawalpindi Multan Peshawar
NRW 45% 40% 40% 45% 40% 50%
Staff per 1,000 connections 6 12 10 11 27 14

Financial aspects

Tariffs and cost recovery

Low tariffs, together with poor collection efficiency and overstaffing cause that many urban utilities do not cover the costs for operation and maintenance (O&M). The ADB found typical domestic tariffs of US$0.13 per m³ in Karachi and US$0.25 in Lahore (fixed charges excluded).[4][5] The Ministry of Power and Water reported in 2002 that in smaller cities and towns part of the O&M costs had been financed with local taxes until recently.[61] The National Drinking Water Policy calls for appropriate user charges, increased cost recovery and cross subsidies. Tariffs are supposed to become differentiated according to the income situation of the respective city and town areas.[62]

Investment and financing

The sector strongly depends on internal and external financing. The Ministry of Power and Water reported in 2002 that in recent years, 49% of the total new investments in the water sector had been financed by external loans and 43% by the government.[63] The MTDF recognizes that with 0.25% of its total GDP, Pakistan’s investment in the water supply and sanitation sector is inadequate and provides for US$2 billion (120 billion rupee) or US$404 million per year for the sector from 2005 to 2010,[7] half of which is to be paid by the federal and provincial governments, including the construction and rehabilitation of water supply schemes in urban and rural areas and wastewater treatment plants in provincial capitals. The other half is expected to be provided by the private sector and includes water supply systems, sewerage networks and wastewater treatment as part of new housing schemes in cities and towns.[64]

External cooperation

The sector receives much support from development partners, among them the Asian Development Bank (ADB), Japan, the United States and the World Bank.

Asian Development Bank

In December 2008 the Asian Development Bank (ADB) approved a $300 million loan for the Sindh Cities Improvement Investment Program, which aims at improving water supply, wastewater, and solid waste management infrastructure in more than 20 secondary cities in the Province of Sindh with more than six million inhabitants. The loan, in the form of a multitranche financing facility (MFF), will also support urban sector reforms – such as the establishment of local government-owned urban services corporations – and capacity development. The first tranche of $38 million (2009–2012) targets the northern Sindh cities of Sukkur, New Sukkur, RohriKhairpurShikarpur and Larkana.

Urban services in secondary cities in Sindh fall far short of targets for quality, continuity, and coverage. Only about half the urban population of Sindh, outside of Karachi, has piped water. Even then, the water quality is poor and often flows for only two to four hours a day. Sanitary drainage is extremely limited and sewer lines are often blocked. No sanitary landfills exist, which leads to solid waste being disposed of by burning or illegal dumping in open spaces or drainage channels, causing blockage and pollution.[65]

The ADB also financed the Punjab Community Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Project with US$50 million, which was active in rural villages in all districts of the Punjab province from 2003 until the end of 2007. As a result, about 2.5 million additional people in 778 villages were provided with water supply and sanitation facilities with full cost recovery. CBOs maintain and operate the schemes and charge the users. Tehsil municipal administrations were strengthened and received training under the project. In addition, communities received training in health and hygiene practices and the construction of latrines. The project also established a link between the beneficiary communities andmicro finance institutions, which have disbursed about US$4 million to about 15,000 borrowers in 617 communities.[66]

Japan

Under the Metropolitan Water Supply Project (Khanpur I), implemented between 1994 and 2000, the Japanese Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC) contributed to the improvement of water supply in the Islamabad Metropolitan Area, including Rawalpindi. The total amount disbursed was US$109 million (12,442 million Yen).[67] Among other things, water purification facilities with a capacity of 281,000 m³ per day, water supply facilities and water storage facilities were constructed to meet the increasing demand for water supply.[68] JICA also supported a Master Plan for water Supply and sewerage in Karachi, completed as a final draft in 2008.[69]

United States

In January 2009 USAID signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the “Ministry of Special Initiatives” to support the programme with US$17.9 million, anticipating that over 31 million Pakistanis in 40 districts will benefit from it. [41]

World Bank

Second Karachi Water Supply. Under the second Karachi Water Supply Project, the World Bank contributed with US$92 million to increase water supply coverage and sanitation in Karachi and to improve operation, management and financial viability of the Karachi Water and Sewerage Board (KWSB). The project started in 1993 and provided for the construction of a canal to bring water from the Indus River, pumping stations, water and wastewater treatment facilities. In low income areas, small bore sewers were to be built. The operational efficiency of KWSB was expected to improve through technical assistance by the World Bank and increased cost reduction measures, e.g. reduction of water losses.[70]

Rural Water Supply & Sanitation Project. The World Bank contributed with US$137 million to the Rural Water Supply & Sanitation Project, which was active from 1991 to 2000 in the self-governing Pakistani state of Azad Jammu and Kashmir. The main objectives of the project were to improve rural productivity and health and reduce poverty and deprivation. The components of the project included the construction and rehabilitation of water supply and sanitation schemes, institutional strengthening and training, latrine construction materials accompanied by health education and promotion, water resources and sanitation studies and private sector support.[71]

References

  1. a b c d

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  44. ^ Health Services Academy, Ministry of Health, Government of PakistanWorld Health Organization (WHO) (May 2007). Quality Drinking Water: Standards for Pakistan. Includes Legislating, Implementing and Monitoring Framework. Retrieved 2008-07-02.
  45. ^ Bridges, Geoff; Asian Development Bank (ADB) (2007). Asian Water Development Outlook 2007. Country Paper Pakistan. Retrieved 2008-05-28., p. 8
  46. ^ Ahmed, Noman; Sohail, Muhammad (2003). “Alternate water supply arrangements in peri-urban localities: awami (people’s) tanks in Orangi township, Karachi”Environment and Urbanization (SAGE Publications) 15 (2): 33–42.doi:10.1177/095624780301500218. Retrieved 2008-06-05., p. 34
  47. ^ Bridges, Geoff; Asian Development Bank (ADB) (2007). Asian Water Development Outlook 2007. Country Paper Pakistan. Retrieved 2008-05-28., p. 10
  48. ^ Government of Pakistan. Ministry of Environment (September 2006). National Sanitation Policy.. Retrieved 2008-05-30.[dead link], p. 20
  49. ^ Hasan, Arif (2005). The Orangi Pilot Project: Research and Training Institute’s Mapping Process and Its Repercussions. Karachi: Orangi Pilot Project, International Institute for Environment and Development.
  50. ^ Government of Pakistan. Ministry of Environment (September 2006). National Sanitation Policy.. Retrieved 2008-05-30.[dead link], p. 9; 11; 14; 16; 20
  51. ^ World Bank (2004-11-10). “NGO Gets A Million Dollar WB Administered Japanese Grant For Sanitation”. Retrieved 2008-07-03.
  52. ^ Lodhran Pilot Project. “Website”. Retrieved 2008-07-03.
  53. ^ Water Sanitation Hygiene Forum (2009-09-10). “CLTS in Pakistan”. Retrieved 2010-07-22.
  54. ^ 1 Pakistani Rupee = US$0.01631 (2007-12-31); source:http://oanda.com
  55. ^ Masroor Ahmad, Water and Sanitation Program, the World Bank (2007-11-01). “Sanitation Movement Gains Ground in Pakistan”. Retrieved 2008-07-02.
  56. ^ IRC:Pakistan: Community Led Total Sanitation did not create demand for “improved sanitation”, accessed on November 20, 2009
  57. ^ Pakistan Water Gateway (2005). “The Pakistan Water Situational Analysis”. Retrieved 2008-05-28., p. 20
  58. a b The study uses data from 246 water utilities, of which half are in 44 developing countries. The utilities range from small ones, which serve fewer than 125,000 people to large ones, serving more than 500,000. All regions and within countries, all income levels are included. In each of the five categories (NRW, labor productivity, service coverage, water prices and connection costs and continuity of service), at least 30 utilities from developing countries and 30 from developed countries are included. The best practice targets for developing countries are based on the performance of the top 25 utilities of developing country utilities. The study uses data from the World Bank’s Water and Sanitation Utilities database and the Asian Development Bank; see: Tynan, Nicola; Kingdom, Bill (2002-04-01). “A Water Scorecard. Setting Performance Targets for Water Utilities”Public Policy Journal(The World Bank Group) (242). Retrieved 2008-05-19.
  59. ^ Government of Pakistan. Ministry of Water and Power (October 2002). Pakistan Water Sector Strategy. Detailed Strategy Formulation. Volume 4. Retrieved 2008-05-29., p. 118
  60. ^ Water and Sanitation Program (August 2004). Managing Karachi’s water supply and sanitation services: lessons from a workshop. Retrieved 2008-06-04., p. 6
  61. ^ Government of Pakistan. Ministry of Water and Power (October 2002). Pakistan Water Sector Strategy. Water Sector Profile. Volume 5. Retrieved 2008-05-29., p. 245
  62. ^ Government of Pakistan. Ministry of Environment (November 2007). National Drinking Water Policy. Draft. Retrieved 2008-05-28.[dead link], p. 5
  63. ^ It is likely that in this case, the federal government is meant; see:Government of Pakistan. Ministry of Water and Power (October 2002). Pakistan Water Sector Strategy. Water Sector Profile. Volume 5. Retrieved 2008-05-29., p. 105
  64. ^ Government of Pakistan. Ministry of Planning and Development (2004). Medium Term Development Framework 2005-10. Section 10: Water and Sanitation. Islamabad. Retrieved 2008-05-29.[dead link], sections 10.3.; 10.7.
  65. ^ Asian Development Bank:Investment and Reforms for Cities in Pakistan’s Sindh Province, 3 December 2008
  66. ^ Asian Development Bank (ADB)Punjab Community Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Project : Pakistan. Retrieved 2008-06-04.
  67. ^ 1 Japanese Yen = US$0.008742 (2000-12-31); source:http://oanda.com
  68. ^ Japan Bank for International Cooperation (February 2003).Metropolitan Water Supply Project (Khanpur I). Retrieved 2008-06-04.
  69. ^ JICA Pakistan Office:Seminar on Draft Final Report of Master Plan Study on “Water Supply and Sewerage System in Karachi”, May 22, 2008, accessed on March 8, 2010
  70. ^ World Bank (2001-01-30). Projects – Pakistan : 2nd Karachi Water Supply. Retrieved 2008-06-03.
  71. ^ World Bank (2001-01-30). Projects – Pakistan : Rural Water Supply & Sanitation Project. Retrieved 2008-06-03.

See also

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